Here we present for the first time a potential wound dressing material implementing aptamers as binding entities to remove pathogenic cells from newly contaminated surfaces of wound matrix-mimicking collagen gels. The model pathogen in this study was the Gram-negative opportunistic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which represents a considerable health threat in hospital environments as a cause of severe infections of burn or post-surgery wounds. A two-layered hydrogel composite material was constructed based on an established eight-membered focused anti-P. aeruginosa polyclonal aptamer library, which was chemically crosslinked to the material surface to form a trapping zone for efficient binding of the pathogen. A drug-loaded zone of the composite released the C14R antimicrobial peptide to deliver it directly to the bound pathogenic cells. We demonstrate that this material combining aptamer-mediated affinity and peptide-dependent pathogen eradication can quantitatively remove bacterial cells from the “wound” surface, and we show that the surface-trapped bacteria are completely killed. The drug delivery function of the composite thus represents an extra safeguarding property and thus probably one of the most important additional advances of a next-generation or smart wound dressing ensuring the complete removal and/or eradication of the pathogen of a freshly infected wound.