Chronic kidney disease (CKD) perturbs the crosstalk with others organs, with the interaction between the kidneys and the heart having been studied most intensively. However, a growing body of data indicates that there is an association between kidney dysfunction and disorders of the central nervous system. In epidemiological studies, CKD is associated with a high prevalence of neurological complications, such as cerebrovascular disorders, movement disorders, cognitive impairment and depression. Along with traditional cardiovascular risk factors (such as diabetes, inflammation, hypertension and dyslipidaemia), non-traditional risk factors related to kidney damage (such as uraemic toxins) may predispose patients with CKD to neurological disorders. There is increasing evidence to show that uraemic toxins, for example indoxyl sulphate, have a neurotoxic effect. A better understanding of factors responsible for the elevated prevalence of neurological disorders among patients with CKD might facilitate the development of novel treatments. Here, we review (i) the potential clinical impact of CKD on cerebrovascular and neurological complications, (ii) the mechanisms underlying the uraemic toxins putative action (based on pre-clinical and clinical research) and (iii) the potential impact of these findings on patient care.
- indoxyl sulphate
- uraemic toxins