The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is a prolific producer of plant cell wall degrading enzymes, which are regulated in response to diverse environmental signals for optimal adaptation, but also produces a wide array of secondary metabolites. Available carbon source and light are the strongest cues currently known to impact secreted enzyme levels and an interplay with regulation of secondary metabolism became increasingly obvious in recent years. While cellulase regulation is already known to be modulated by different mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, the relevance of the light signal, which is transmitted by this pathway in other fungi as well, is still unknown in T. reesei as are interconnections to secondary metabolism and chemical communication under mating conditions. Here we show that MAPkinases differentially influence cellulase regulation in light and darkness and that the Hog1 homologue TMK3, but not TMK1 or TMK2 are required for the chemotropic response to glucose in T. reesei. Additionally, MAPkinases regulate production of specific secondary metabolites including trichodimerol and bisorbibutenolid, a bioactive compound with cytostatic effect on cancer cells and deterrent effect on larvae, under conditions facilitating mating, which reflects a defect in chemical communication. Strains lacking either of the MAPkinases become female sterile, indicating the conservation of the role of MAPkinases in sexual fertility also in T. reesei. In summary, our findings substantiate the previously detected interconnection of cellulase regulation with regulation of secondary metabolism as well as the involvement of MAPkinases in light dependent gene regulation of cellulase and secondary metabolite genes in fungi.
- Exploration of Biological Resources