During the last decade, connected and automated driving (CAD) has gained considerable attention. For example, automated shuttles, a specific category of automated vehicles (AVs), intend driverless operation for passenger or goods transport in constrained operational design domains (ODDs). So far, these shuttles predominately follow a static driving path, but for reaching higher automation levels, a more comprehensive digital representation of the driving environment, a so-called high-definition (HD) map is needed. However, when it comes to the definition of the scope as well as the composition workflow, a common method is missing. The current work proposes and evaluates a 4-steps workflow including sub-workflows for creating a HD map for AVs in constrained ODDs. The workflow includes sub-workflows for (1) definition of the scope based on use cases, (2) mapping and semi-automatic extraction of objects from a LIDAR point cloud, (3) HD map composition with OpenDRIVE® and Lanelet2 as target formats and (4) testing and iterative refinement with respect to the intended use cases. The workflows are evaluated by applying them on a 2-km-long test track. The resulting HD map is evaluated with two different case studies. Results may serve as guidelines for creating HD maps for AV trials.
- Road Infrastructure Assessment, Modelling and Safety Evaluation