Challenges in Virtual Reality Training for CBRN Events

Georg Regal, Daniele Pretolesi, Helmut Georg Schrom-Feiertag, Jaison Puthenkalam, Massimo Migliorini, Elios De Maio, Francesca Scarrone, Marina Nadalin, Massimiliano Guarneri, Grace P. Xerri, Daniele Di Giovanni, Paola Tessari, Federica Genna, Andrea D’Angelo, Markus Murtinger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The contemporary geopolitical environment and strategic uncertainty shaped by asymmetric and hybrid threats urge the future development of hands-on training in realistic environments. Training in immersive, virtual environments is a promising approach. Immersive training can support training for contexts that are otherwise hard to access, dangerous, or have high costs. This paper discusses the challenges for virtual reality training in the CBRN (chemical, biological, radioactive, nuclear) domain. Based on initial considerations and a literature review, we conducted a survey and three workshops to gather requirements for CBRN training in virtual environments. We structured the gathered insights into four overarching themes—the future of CBRN training, ethical and safety requirements, evaluation and feedback, and tangible objects and tools. We provide insights on these four themes and discuss recommendations.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages18
JournalMultimodal Technologies and Interaction
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 11 Sept 2023

Research Field

  • Experience Business Transformation
  • Former Research Field - Experience Measurement


  • CBRN
  • virtual reality
  • virtual environment
  • training


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