Effects on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of the Addition of Co, Cr, and Fe to the Eutectoid System Ti-6.5Cu

Ella Staufer (Speaker), Christian Edtmaier, Elisabeth Ballok, Nico Moser, Thomas Klein, Christian Schneider-Bröskamp, Duyao Zhang, Mark Easton, Dong Qiu, Martin Schmitz-Niederau, Lena Trunova, Jelena Horky

Research output: Chapter in Book or Conference ProceedingsConference Proceedings with Oral Presentationpeer-review


Wire-based additive manufacturing has increased in popularity for the fabrication of large titanium components. However,
only a few wire materials (pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V) are commercially available, and these are prone to columnar grain
growth and, thus, anisotropic mechanical properties. Therefore, the primary objective was to develop titanium alloy wires
with isotropic properties, high specific strength, and sufficiently high ductility after WAAM processing. Adding a eutectoid-
forming alloying element like Cu or Ni can suppress the formation of columnar grains. Ti-6.5Cu-based alloys with Co, Cr
and Fe additions in concentrations between 0.5 wt.% and 3 wt.% were first evaluated by CALPHAD methods and then
experimentally prepared by inductive melting. Additionally, larger samples were produced by hot powder extrusion. The
microstructural evolution was investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction.
Further, the microhardness and tensile strength on selected samples were determined. Adding all elements leads to a
martensitic microstructure, which refines upon the increasing amount of alloying elements. Furthermore, the addition of
alloying elements leads to a reduction in the size of the prior β-grains and to equiaxial grain growth. In addition, an increase
in mechanical properties was observed.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 15th world conference on titanium
Place of PublicationEdinburgh
Publication statusPublished - 30 Jun 2023
EventWorld Conference on Titanium - Edinburgh, United Kingdom
Duration: 12 Jun 202316 Jun 2023


ConferenceWorld Conference on Titanium
Country/TerritoryUnited Kingdom

Research Field

  • Wire-Based Additive Manufacturing


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