Methane, nitrous oxide and fluorinated gases in the Greenhouse & Air pollution INformation and Simulation (GAINS) model

Wilfried Winiwarter, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Antti Tohka, Reinhard Mechler, Ger Klaasen, Markus Amann

Research output: Chapter in Book or Conference ProceedingsBook chapter


The GAINS model is an integrated assessment tool which simultaneously addresses greenhouse gas mitigation and air pollution control. To an existing modelling system (RAINS), modules for greenhouse gases were appended to quantify greenhouse gas emissions, control potentials and mitigation costs for 39 countries in Europe. The integrated model allows for assessments of the integrated effects of control options affecting emissions of several compounds. Such interactions are particularly important for N2O, where options directed at NOx abatement (e.g., fluidized bed combustion, catalytic converters, non-catalytic reduction) and ammonia abatement (deep injection of manure) generate N2O emissions. Also options directed at ammonia emissions from animal manure (stable adaptation) or at reducing NMVOC emissions from agricultural waste burning, have synergistic effects on CH4 emissions. The influence of several control measures (including alternative refrigerants to reduce HFC) on energy use has been noted, but the potential associated changes in CO2 emissions have not been quantified at this time. The results indicate that in 2020 a number of cheap options (less than 20 Euro/t CO2-eq) will exist to reduce emissions beyond what is required by the "current legislation" in Europe. Such options include the reduction of leakages from gas transmission or diversion of waste from landfills (for CH4) and reduced fertilizer application or catalytic reduction of N2O at nitric acid production (for N2O).
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationIn: Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases (NCGG-4)
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - 2005

Research Field

  • Not defined


  • integrated assessment
  • emissions
  • abatement costs


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